September 22, 2000
- The California Wellness Foundation. The California Wellness Foundation Annual Report. 1998. Woodland Hills, CA: The California Wellness Foundation. (E.30.04 S)
Abstract: This annual report of the California Wellness Foundation discusses the five program areas which receive the greatest support: community health; population health improvement; work and health; teenage pregnancy prevention; and violence prevention and the efforts toward support of those programs in the current fiscal year. The appendices include a review of the grants awarded during the fiscal year; a statement of financial position of the California Wellness Foundation; and a list of the Board of Directors and staff. The 1998 report reviews the first five years of the Violence Prevention Initiative.
- San Diego Safe Kids Coalition. Unintentional Injuries in San Diego County: A Report and Action Plan. Executive Summary. 2000. San Diego, CA: San Diego County Safe Kids Coalition. (E.30.02 S)
Abstract: Under the leadership of Children's Hospital and Health Center, the San Diego Safe Kids Coalition has produced this report to improve understanding of unintentional childhood injuries and deaths and to advance an action plan for prevention efforts. The Coalition collaborated with the County of San Diego, Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency Medical Services in order to analyze the best available data. The complete report is available on CD-ROM and is intended as a reference tool and starting point for priority setting and community planning. The complete report provides data on injuries and deaths caused by the following unintentional mechanisms: Transportation; Household; Drowning; and Sports and Recreation. The report does not include information on injuries and deaths that are caused by intentional mechanisms such as homicide, suicide, and assault. This Executive Summary provides highlights from the complete data report and recommendations for actions for 2000-2003.
- Capitol'izing On Our Resources: 1999 Maternal and Child Health Conference. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Health Services, Maternal and Child Health, 1999. (E.30.12 B)
Abstract: This notebook contains materials from the California MCH conference held May 25-26, 1999 in Sacramento, CA.
- McArthur DL, Peek-Asa C, Kraus JF. Injury hospitalizations before and after the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2000; 18(4):361-366. (E.73 S)
Abstract: This study compared hospital-admitted injuries during the 14 days after the Northridge, California, earthquake of January 17, 1994, with hospital-admitted injuries during the preceding 16 days at the same facilities. Seventy-eight hospitals providing emergency care in Los Angeles County were screened; 16 were identified as having admitted at least one person for an earthquake-related injury. Retrospective chart reviews of hospitalized injuries for all of January 1994 were conducted at those facilities. The Northridge earthquake resulted in 138 injuries severe enough to require hospitalization. On the day of the earthquake, such injuries were 74% more frequent than usual overall. Some hospitals experienced as many as five times the number of injury admissions seen in the days preceding the event. The increase in caseload was short-lived, however; injury admissions tended to return to normal levels within two days after the quake. Previous reported estimates of the overall number of severe injuries caused by the Northridge earthquake appear to be exaggerated.
- Bouton PB, Fraser M. Local health departments and GIS: the perspective of the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 1999; 5(4):33-41. (E.01.06 S)
Abstract: This article provides thoughts about Geographic Information Systems (GIS) from the perspective of the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). The authors describe a 1998 NACCHO project to identify innovative local health department (LHD) applications of GIS to prevent environmental pollution. They provide highlights from 2 of the LHD case studies conducted as part of this pollution prevention project. They also point out several other NACCHO activities where GIS has been of increasing importance and discuss the challenges that need to be addressed for GIS software, data, and methods to become a standard part of LHD community health planning and prevention effectiveness efforts.
- Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Williams BI, Kinchen SA, Collins JL, Baumler ER et al. Suveillance for characteristics of health education among secondary schools - School Health Education Profiles, 1998. CDC Surveillance Summaries, MMWR 49[SS-8], 1-44. 2000. (E.68 S)
Abstract: The School Health Education Profiles monitor characteristics of health education in middle or junior high schools and senior high schools in the US. The Profiles are school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from 36 state surveys and 10 local surveys conducted among representative samples of school principals and lead health education teachers. During the study period, most schools in states and cities that conducted Profiles required health education in grades 6-12. Of these, a median of 91.0% of schools in states and 86.2% of schools in cities taught a separate health education course. The median percentage of schools in each state and city that tried to increase student knowledge in selected topics (i.e., prevention of tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, pregnancy, HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, violence, or suicide, dietary behaviors and nutrition, and physical activity and fitness) was >73% for each of these topics. The median percentage of schools with a health education teacher who coordinated health education was 38.7% across states and 37.6% across cities. A median of 41.8% of schools across states and a median of 31.0% of schools across cities had a lead health education teacher with professional preparation in health and physical education, whereas a median of 6.0% of schools across states and 5.5% across cities had a lead health education teacher with professional preparation in health education only. A median of 19.3% of schools across states and 21.2% across cities had a school health advisory council. The median percentage of schools with a written school or school district policy on HIV infected students or school staff members was 69.7% across states and 84.4% across cities. Many middle/junior high schools and senior high schools require health education to help provide students with knowledge and skills needed for adoption of a healthy lifestyle. However, these schools might not be covering all important topic areas or skills sufficiently. The number of lead health education teachers who are academically prepared in health education and the number of schools with health advisory councils needs to increase.
- California Office of Traffic Safety, Roseville Fire Department. Buckle Up Baby: Child Passenger Safety Workshop. 2000. Roseville, CA: Roseville Fire Department. (E.52.02.06 S)
Abstract: The California Office of Traffic Safety and the Roseville, CA Fire Department sponsored this training session on April 7, 2000 on how to operate a child passenger safety fitting station. This folder includes handouts on convertible child safety seats, booster seats, and shoulder harnesses; a list of materials needed to operate a fitting station, and lists of CPS information and resources.
- Lueder GT. Air bag-associated ocular trauma in children. Ophthalmology 2000; 107(8):1472-1475. (E.52.02.04 S)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe a series of children with ocular injuries related to air bag deployment. A retrospective, observational case series was conducted of 7 patients with ocular injuries sustained in motor vehicle accidents in which air bags were deployed. All patients had periocular contusions. Minor injuries included corneal abrasions (n = 5), superficial eyelid laceration (n = 1), and traumatic iritis (n = 2). Serious injuries included corneal edema (n = 1) and a traumatic hyphema with secondary glaucoma and cataract (n = 1). The latter patient required surgery. All other injuries resolved with medical therapy. All patients recovered normal visual acuity. Serious ocular injuries in children may result from air bag deployment. Most such injuries are minor and resolve without sequelae. It is recommended that infants and children travel in the rear seat of automobiles to minimize their risk of injury.
- U.S.Department of Transportation NHTSA, Federal Highway Administration. Walking Through the Years: Pedestrian Safety for the Older Adult (65+). DOT HS 809 083, 1-13. 2000. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (E.51.04 S)
Abstract: This consumer-level report describes the major pedestrian risks facing older (65+) adults and suggests actions that they can take to avoid accidents. It includes information from a variety of studies done over the years by NHTSA, FHWA, and other highway safety organizations.
- Eckenrode J, Ganzel B, Henderson CR, Jr., Smith E, Olds DL, Powers J et al. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect With a Program of Nurse Home Visitation: The Limiting Effects of Domestic Violence. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 284(11):1385-1391. (E.47.02.04 S)
Abstract: Home visitation to families with young children has been promoted as an effective way to prevent child maltreatment, but few studies have examined the conditions under which such programs meet this goal. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of domestic violence limits the effects of nurse home visitation interventions in reducing substantiated reports of child abuse and neglect. Fifteen-year follow-up study of a randomized trial was conducted in a semirural community in upstate New York. Of 400 socially disadvantaged pregnant women with no previous live births enrolled consecutively between April 1978 and September 1980, 324 mothers and their children participated in the follow-up study. Families were randomly assigned to receive routine perinatal care, routine care plus nurse home visits during pregnancy only, or routine care plus nurse home visits during pregnancy and through the child's second birthday. The main outcome measure was the number of substantiated reports over the entire 15-year period involving the study child as subject regardless of the identity of the perpetrator or involving the mother as perpetrator regardless of the identity of the child abstracted from state records and analyzed by treatment group and level of domestic violence in the home as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale. Families receiving home visitation during pregnancy and infancy had significantly fewer child maltreatment reports involving the mother as perpetrator or the study child as subject than families not receiving home visitation. The number of maltreatment reports for mothers who received home visitation during pregnancy only was not different from the control group. For mothers who received visits through the child's second birthday, the treatment effect decreased as the level of domestic violence increased. Of women who reported 28 or fewer incidents of domestic violence (79% of sample), home-visited mothers had significantly fewer child maltreatment reports during the 15-year period than mothers not receiving the longer-term intervention. However, this intervention did not significantly reduce child maltreatment among mothers reporting more than 28 incidents of domestic violence (21% of sample). The authors conclude that the presence of domestic violence may limit the effectiveness of interventions to reduce incidence of child abuse and neglect.
- Frederickson D. Maltreatment of children. Journal of Child and Family Nursing 1999; 2(6):393-401. (E.80.02 S)
Abstract: Child maltreatment is comprised of four major categories. These include physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Theory development has evolved to explanatory models. Research has provided a great deal of insight into the recognition of child maltreatment, the factors that place children at risk for maltreatment, and the factors that place a caregiver at risk for becoming abusive. The emotional effects of child maltreatment on the child include shame, aggression, delinquency, criminology, depression, and symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder. Theoretical frameworks for child maltreatment intervention both with the child and the perpetrator have been developed. Theory testing and development should continue to provide direction for further intervention research
- McQuillan CT, Rodriguez J. Adolescent suicide: a review of the literature. Boletin Asociacion Medica de Puerto Rico 2000; 92(1-3):30-38. (E.90 S)
Abstract: This article reviews the literature on the risk factors related to teen suicide in the United States and Puerto Rico. Findings indicate the interplay of multifactors including depression, homosexuality--due to the hostility that is often experienced by the person--, sexual abuse, lack of coping, social and problem-solving skills stemming from family dysfunction, feelings of isolation and helplessness, contagion, gender differences, alcohol and drug abuse, psychiatric disorders, biological factors, as well as natural disasters. Included in this report are some statistics on the prevalence of suicide among teens and in the military
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