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Journal Article


Brandenburg S, Oehl M, Hartwig C. Traffic Injury Prev. 2019; 20(1): 52-57.


Institute of Experimental Industrial Psychology , Leuphana University Lüneburg , Lüneburg , Germany.


(Copyright © 2019, Informa - Taylor and Francis Group)






OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this article is to examine whether the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) applies to German drivers because this scale has previously been given to drivers in many different countries.

METHODS: We applied German versions of the DAX, the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) to a sample of 501 German drivers. We computed confirmatory factor analysis and principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis to examine the structure of driving anger expression in Germany. Finally, we related the drivers' anger exp ression scores to their driving anger experiences and their general anger propensities to assess the validity of the DAX for German drivers.

RESULTS: Results indicated that the DAX's original factor structure does not apply to German drivers because the confirmatory factor analysis did not show a good model fit. An item analysis revealed that many DAX items had no meaningful variability. They were excluded from further analysis. The subsequent PAF analysis indicated that German drivers do not use personal physical aggression to express their driving anger. Instead, they reported unique preventive anger expression management behavior. In addition, their driving anger expressions were significantly related to their driving anger experiences and their general anger propensities indicated the validity of the refined DAX for German drivers.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that German drivers do not use strong behaviors to express their driving anger. Many statements of Deffenbacher et al.'s (Behav Res Ther. 40:717-737, 2002) original American questionnaire were not applicable for our sample of German drivers. These findings are in line with several other studies showing discrepancies in driving anger expression in various countries. Future investigations should examine the reasons for discrepancies in driving anger expression.

Language: en


Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX); Driving anger expression; emotions in driving; personality and driving


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