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Journal Article

Citation

Whyte T, Stuart C, Mallory A, Ghajari M, Plant D, Siegmund GP, Cripton PA. J. Biomech. Eng. 2019; ePub(ePub): ePub.

Affiliation

Orthopaedic Injury Biomechanics Group, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Orthopaedics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2019, American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

DOI

10.1115/1.4043140

PMID

30861063

Abstract

Standards for sports headgear were introduced as far back as the 1960s and many have remained substantially unchanged to present day. Since this time, headgear has virtually eliminated catastrophic head injuries such as skull fractures and changed the landscape of head injuries in sports. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is now a prevalent concern and the effectiveness of headgear in mitigating mTBI is inconclusive for most sports. Given that most current headgear standards are confined to attenuating linear head mechanics and recent brain injury studies have underscored the importance of angular mechanics in the genesis of mTBI, new or expanded standards are needed to foster headgear development and assess headgear performance that addresses all types of sport-related head and brain injuries. The aim of this review is to provide a basis for developing new sports headgear impact tests for standards by summarizing and critiquing: 1) impact testing procedures currently codified in published headgear standards for sports and 2) new or proposed headgear impact test procedures in published literature and/or relevant conferences. Research areas identified as needing further knowledge to support standards test development include defining sports-specific head impact conditions, establishing injury and age appropriate headgear assessment criteria, and the development of headgear specific head and neck surrogates for at-risk populations.


Language: en

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