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Journal Article

Citation

Park YJ, Kim MK, Kim HS, Lee BM. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 2019; ePub(ePub): ePub.

Affiliation

Division of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy , Sungkyunkwan University , Suwon , Gyeonggi-do , South Korea.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2019, Informa - Taylor and Francis Group)

DOI

10.1080/10937404.2019.1601815

PMID

30977440

Abstract

Use of lithium-ion batteries has raised safety issues owing to chemical leakages, overcharging, external heating, or explosions. A risk assessment was conducted for hydrofluoric acid (HF) and lithium hydroxide (LiOH) which potential might leak from lithium-ion batteries. The inhalation no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for HF was 0.75 mg/kg/d. When a lithium-ion battery explodes in a limited space, HF emissions amount to 10-100 ppm. Assuming the worst-case scenario, the conversion rate was calculated to be 81.8 mg/m3, and the average daily dose (ADD) was 19.5 mg/kg/d. Consequently, the margin of exposure (MOE = NOAEL/ADD) was 0.034, a value which constitutes an unsafe inhalation exposure for HF. Conversely, skin toxicity NOAEL for LiOH was 41.35 mg/kg/d-. This LiOH value reflects the amount of lithium in the lithium-ion battery, which is generated upon contact between water and the electrolyte. The quantity of lithium in a mobile phone is approximately 295 mg, and systemic exposure dose (SED) was 4.92 mg/kg/d. Accordingly, the MOE (NOAEL/SED) value was 8.41, and skin exposure of LiOH was deemed as safe for humans. However, it is important that Energy Storage System batteries still require safety measures and technologies for next-generation batteries, to prevent any potential explosions of lithium-ion batteries.


Language: en

Keywords

Lithium-ion battery; explosion; hydrofluoric acid; risk assessment

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