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Journal Article

Citation

Lazzer S, Plaino L, Antonutto G. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2011; 111(3): 357-366.

Affiliation

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of Udine, P.le Kolbe 4, 33100, Udine, Italy.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2011, Holtzbrinck Springer Nature Publishing Group)

DOI

10.1007/s00421-010-1410-1

PMID

20349082

Abstract

From 1885, technological improvements, such as the use of special metal alloys and the application of aerodynamics principles, have transformed the bicycle from a human powered heavy transport system to an efficient, often expensive, object used to move not only in our crowded cities, but also in leisure activities and in sports. In this paper, the concepts of mechanical work and efficiency of cycling together with the corresponding metabolic expenditure are discussed. The effects of altitude and aerodynamic improvements on sports performances are also analysed. A section is dedicated to the analysis of the maximal cycling performances. Finally, since during the next decades the return of Man on the Moon and, why not, a mission to Mars can be realistically hypothesised, a section is dedicated to cycling-based facilities, such as man powered short radius centrifuges, to be used to prevent cardiovascular and skeletal muscle deconditioning otherwise occurring during long-term exposure to microgravity.


Language: en

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