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Journal Article

Citation

Han PP, Holbrook TL, Sise MJ, Sack DI, Sise CB, Hoyt DB, Coimbra R, Potenza B, Anderson JP. J. Trauma 2011; 70(4): 923-930.

Affiliation

San Diego State University (P.P.H.); EPI-SOAR Consulting (T.L.H., D.I.S.); Mercy Hospital Trauma Center (M.J.S., B.S.), San Diego, California; Division of Trauma, Department of Surgery (D.B.H.), University of Irvine, California; and Division of Trauma, Departments of Surgery (R.C., B.P.) and Family and Preventive Medicine (J.P.A.), University of California, San Diego, California.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2011, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins)

DOI

10.1097/TA.0b013e31820cf03e

PMID

21610397

Abstract

BACKGROUND: : Little is known about the impact of postinjury depression after major trauma in adolescents. A prospective epidemiologic study was conducted to examine depression in injured adolescents. Specific objectives of this report are to identify risk factors for depression onset and the impact of depression on quality of life (QoL) outcomes. METHODS: : Four hundred one trauma patients were enrolled in this study (age, 12-19 years; injury severity score [ISS] ≥4). Depression diagnosis was based on the Children's Depression Inventory. QoL outcomes were measured using the Quality of Well-being Scale at 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. RESULTS: : Depression at discharge was diagnosed in 41% of 399 adolescent trauma survivors with complete Children's Depression Inventory data. Multivariate logistic regression identified ISS, >3 body regions injured, low socioeconomic status, family members injured at the scene, and suicidal ideology or attempted suicide before injury as strong and independent predictors of depression risk. ISS and three or more body regions injured predicted depression risk. Patients with severe injury (ISS ≥17) were twice more likely to have depressive symptoms than patients with moderate injury (ISS <17; odds ratio [OR] = 2.0; p < 0.01). Patients with three or more body regions injured were more likely to have depressive symptoms than patients with less than three body regions injured (OR = 2.1; p < 0.01). Adolescents from low socioeconomic status families were more likely to be depressed (OR = 2.2; p < 0.05). Adolescent patients who witnessed family injured at the trauma event were also more likely to be depressed (OR = 2.4; p < 0.01). Patients who experienced suicidal ideology or attempted suicide preinjury were more likely to be depressed than adolescent patients who did not (OR = 2.87; p < 0.05). Quality of well-being scores were significantly and markedly lesser for patients with depression across the 24-month follow-up (3-18 months follow-up, p < 0.0001; 24 months: with depression = 0.738 vs. without depression = 0.784, p < 0.0001). Patients with depression were also significantly more likely to develop acute stress disorder and long-term posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 1.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: : Postinjury depression is a major and an important complication in seriously injured adolescents. Adolescent trauma survivors have high rates of predischarge depression. Depression severely impacts QoL outcomes and is associated with injury severity, injury event-related factors, social factors, acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early recognition and treatment of DEPR in seriously injured adolescents will improve acute trauma care and long-term QoL outcomes.


Language: en

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