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Journal Article

Citation

Stochholm K, Bojesen A, Jensen AS, Juul S, Gravholt CH. BMJ Open 2012; 2(1): e000650.

Affiliation

Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Aarhus C, Aarhus, Denmark.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2012, BMJ Publishing Group)

DOI

10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000650

PMID

22357573

PMCID

PMC3289987

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the criminal pattern in men between 15 and 70 years of age diagnosed with 47,XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome (KS)) or 47,XYY compared to the general population. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study comparing the incidence of convictions among men with KS and with 47,XYY with age- and calendar-matched samples of the general population. Crime was classified into eight types (sexual abuse, homicide, burglary, violence, traffic, drug-related, arson and 'others'). SETTING: Denmark 1978-2006. PARTICIPANTS: All men diagnosed with KS (N=934) or 47,XYY (N=161) at risk and their age- and calendar-time-matched controls (N=88 979 and 15 356, respectively). RESULTS: The incidence of convictions was increased in men with KS (omitting traffic offenses) compared to controls with a HR of 1.40 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.59, p<0.001), with significant increases in sexual abuse, burglary, arson and 'others', but with a decreased risk of traffic and drug-related offenses. The incidence of convictions was significantly increased among men with 47,XYY compared to controls with a HR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.77, p<0.005) in all crime types, except drug-related crimes and traffic. Adjusting for socioeconomic variables (education, fatherhood, retirement and cohabitation) reduced the total HR for both KS and 47,XYY to levels similar to controls, while some specific crime types (sexual abuse, arson, etc) remained increased. CONCLUSION: The overall risk of conviction (excluding traffic offenses) was moderately increased in men with 47,XYY or KS; however, it was similar to controls when adjusting for socioeconomic parameters. Convictions for sexual abuse, burglary, arson and 'others' were significantly increased. The increased risk of convictions may be partly or fully explained by the poor socioeconomic conditions related to the chromosome aberrations.


Language: en

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