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Journal Article


Duncan RD. J. Interpers. Violence 1999; 14(8): 871-886.


(Copyright © 1999, SAGE Publishing)






The current study examines the prevalence of bullying in 375 U.S. American children, determines the relationship between peer bullying and sibling bullying, and examines the link between psychological difficulties and bullying. Twenty-five percent of the children reported being victims of peer bullying and 28% acknowledged being bullies. Children who were peer bullies and victims of peer bullying reported the highest frequency of sibling bullying and victimization. In addition, there were significant group effects for sibling and peer-bully involvement as well as a sibling by peer bullying interaction in level of self-reported psychological difficulties. In general, those who were both bullies and victims reported the highest level of psychological difficulty followed by victims, bullies, and those not involved in bullying, in that order.

VioLit summary:

The purpose of this article by Duncan was to examine the prevalence of bullying in the United States. Specifically, the author explored the relationship between psychological difficulties and bullying, and the relationship between sibling and peer bullying.

Using the Peer Relations Questionnaire (PRQ), the author assessed involvement in bullying at school. Participants were 375 children (194 males, 178 females, and three children who did not indicate their gender) from three middle schools in the rural south. The mean age of the children was 13.35. There were 94 seventh grade students and 281 eighth grade students. The author modified the PRQ in order to ask questions about sibling bullying. The author employed the Multiscore Depression Inventory of Children (MDIC) to assess self-reported psychological difficulties. Loneliness was assessed using the Children's Loneliness Questionnaire. Alpha coefficients on all of these measures were high enough to obtain confidence in internal consistency.

In terms of peer bullying, it was found that males were much more likely to admit that they were bullying their peers than were females. Of all participants, 28% reported being bullies, while 25% reported being victimized by bullies. Males and females were equally likely to report being victims. Seventh graders were more likely that eight graders to be called names, get hit and pushed around, get left out, and be made fun of. However, seventh and eighth graders were equally likely to report that they bully other children.
In terms of sibling bullying, 29% of participants reported being bullied by siblings. Twenty-two percent reported being hit and pushed by siblings, and 8% reported being beaten up by a sibling. About 60% reported getting along great with their siblings. Males and females reported bullying their siblings at an equal rate of about 40%, with about 24% having admitted to hitting their siblings and about 11% having reported to beating up their brothers and sisters. About 60% of peer bully/victims reported being bullied by brothers or sisters. Additionally, the majority of peer bully/victims (77%) and peer bullies (56%) reported bullying their siblings.
In terms of psychological correlates of peer bullying, multivariate analyses of variances revealed that children that were both bullies and victims of bullies reported more psychological difficulties that all the others. Psychological difficulties that were analyzed were: anxiety, self-esteem, sadness, helplessness, social introversion, low energy, pessimism, defiance, depression, and loneliness. Victims of bullying showed the next highest level of difficulties, and those not involved in bullying showed the least. Children not involved in bullying at home ora at school had the lowest levels of pathology, while children that were bully/victims at school and bullied at home had the highest levels of pathology. (CSPV Abstract - Copyright © 1992-2007 by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, Regents of the University of Colorado)

KW - Bully Offender
KW - Bully Victim
KW - Bullying Effects
KW - Bullying in School
KW - Bullying at Home
KW - Sibling Violence Offender
KW - Sibling Violence Victim
KW - Sibling Bullying
KW - Psychological Victimization Effects
KW - Sibling Relations
KW - Sibling Conflict
KW - Sibling Violence Effects
KW - Domestic Violence Effects
KW - Domestic Violence Offender
KW - Domestic Violence Victim
KW - Child Bully
KW - Child Offender
KW - Child Victim
KW - Juvenile Bully
KW - Juvenile Offender
KW - Juvenile Victim
KW - Juvenile Violence
KW - Child Violence
KW - Late Childhood
KW - Early Adolescence
KW - Junior High School Student
KW - Grade 7
KW - Grade 8
KW - Rural Youth
KW - Bullying Incidence and Prevalence
KW - Juvenile Anxiety
KW - Juvenile Self-Esteem
KW - Helplessness
KW - Loneliness
KW - Depression Causes
KW - Juvenile Depression
KW - Child Depression
KW - Child Anxiety
KW - Child Self-Esteem

Language: en


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