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Journal Article


Graczyk M, Moan T. Ocean Eng. 2008; 35(8-9): 834-855.


(Copyright © 2008, Elsevier Publishing)






The violent motion (sloshing) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in cargo tanks has attracted significant attention. Transformations of the LNG market have led to the increased transport of LNG in partially filled tanks, but established technology is mainly based on engineering experience with completely filled containers. This paper investigates a large sample of sloshing pressure measurements. It focuses on the magnitude of individual sloshing impact events, and their associated temporal and spatial patterns. The durations of these impacts are comparable to the natural frequency of an LNG container wall, so the details of their time histories are important in determining the structural response. Experiments are performed on tanks with high (92.5%) and low (30%) filling levels, for various wave headings. The common post-processing approach of representing impact pressure histories by a triangular profile is studied, and an alternative approach is presented. Two statistical models are used to describe the distribution of maximal pressures in sloshing impacts: a three-parameter Weibull model and a generalized Pareto model. The latter is found to be of questionable utility due to small sample sizes. It is observed that for low filling levels the sloshing impacts are of greater magnitude, having longer durations, smaller ratios of rise time to duration, and larger spatial extents. All these factors should in principle increase the structural response. 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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