We compile citations and summaries of about 400 new articles every week.
RSS Feed

HELP: Tutorials | FAQ
CONTACT US: Contact info

Search Results

Journal Article


Hanson RF, Lipovsky JA, Saunders BE. J. Interpers. Violence 1994; 9(2): 155-169.


(Copyright © 1994, SAGE Publishing)






VioLit summary:

The major aim of this study by Hanson et al. was to identify whether an association exists between family of origin, current family functioning and psychological adjustment, and a previous history of child sexual abuse (CSA) in father/perpetrators of incest.

The authors conducted a quasi-experimental, primary analysis of cross-sectional data to obtain information concerning the circumstances surrounding father/perpetrators of child sexual abuse. The authors reported that the 74 father/perpetrators of CSA included in the study were obtained from a larger sample of father/perpetrators involved in similar research by Saunders, McClure and Murphy (1986). Subjects were included in the current study if the perpetrators' therapist also provided information concerning the perpetrators childhood victimization. Combined information from the therapists and perpetrators revealed that 29 participants had experienced CSA. The majority of the sample were White (82.4%), married (77.9%), of lower socioeconomic status (78.7%) and relatively well educated (85.1% had completed high school or higher). Mean age of the participants was 34.8 (SD=5.86). The perpetrators' family members (victims, siblings, mothers) completed a separate assessment battery. Father/perpetrators completed measures to obtain information on demographics, personality variables, indicants of adjustment and family relationships.
The battery of standardized measures included: 1) the Family Environment Scale (FES) (Moos & Moos, 1981). This 90 item self-report scale measured 10 relationship, personal growth and system maintenance dimensions in families. Discrepancy between family members reports were also measured with an incongruence dimension (test-retest reliability =.69). 2) The Family of Origin Scale (FOS) (Hovestadt, Anderson, Percy, Cochran & Fine, 1985). This 40 item self-report instrument measured self-perceived levels of family of origin health. Core constructs included expression clarity, responsibility, respect towards others, openness towards others, separation/loss acceptance, feelings range, mood/tone, conflict resolution, empathy and trust. Second order factors included intimacy, autonomy and overall family health (test-retest reliability for family health (r=.97), autonomy (r=.77) and intimacy (r=.73). 3) The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) (Derogatis, 1977). This 5 point scaled, self-report instrument (90 items), measured current levels of psychological symptoms in psychiatric and medical patients. 9 primary dimensions exist for the scale--somatization, obsessive/compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. General psychological distress and global severity were also yielded from the scale (test-retest reliability =.77 to .86; internal consistency =.78 to .90). 4) The 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire Form C (16PF) (Cattell, Eber & Tatsuoka, 1970). This 105 item instrument measured general personality traits. It contained 16 content factors and a validity scale, Motivational Distortion, that measured social desirability (reliability was not provided by authors).
In addition to this battery of measures father/perpetrators completed an open-ended questionnaire which was used to obtain information about circumstances surrounding the incest (e.g., threats, use of rewards, alcohol use etc.) and about whether they had experienced CSA. The authors hypothesized: 1) abused perpetrators would report significantly greater levels of chaos and dysfunction in families of origin compared with non-abused perpetrators, 2) abused perpetrators would report significantly greater levels of chaos in families of procreation than non-abused counterparts, 3) abused perpetrators would exhibit more current psychological symptoms than non-abused perpetrators, and 4) abused and non-abused perpetrators would significantly differ from norms in family functioning and psychological adjustment.

A MANOVA, and univariate t-tests, revealed significant differences between abused and non-abused perpetrators on the majority of FOS scales when history of perpetrators was categorized as the independent variable, and second-order factors of the FOS were categorized as the dependent variables. A significant main effect was found (p<0.04). All first order factors except conflict resolution were also found to be significantly different at 0.05 level. Autonomy was significantly different at the 0.01 level. Abused perpetrators scored higher on all scales. MANOVA's were also conducted where the SCL-90-R, FES and 16PF scales, were categorized as dependent variables. The authors stated that these failed to reach significance. The authors reported that differences were not found between abused and non-abused father/perpetrators in psychological adjustment, personality profiles or family of procreation functioning. When the overall sample of father/perpetrators was compared against norms on groups of measures, the perpetrators differed significantly from the norms in almost all areas. Both abused and non-abused father/perpetrators differed significantly from the norms on the FOS scale and revealed more dysfunctional families of origin. The authors stated that a history of CSA was not found to be associated with the father/perpetrators report of current family functioning or self-reported psychological symptoms. Limitations of this study were reported by the authors to be 1) subjects in this study were acknowledging offenders, therefore, results could not be generalized to all perpetrators, 2) no control group was employed to draw comparisons, 3) data relied on retrospective accounts of perpetrators childhood, and 4) the large number of univariate t-tests used to analyze the results of this study could have resulted in a Type 1 Error.

The authors suggested that clinicians working with perpetrators of child sexual abuse, screen for past victimization and assess characteristics of the family of origin.

(CSPV Abstract - Copyright © 1992-2007 by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, Regents of the University of Colorado)

Adult Father
Adult Male
Adult Offender
Adult Parent
Adult Violence
Family History
Family of Origin Violence
Family Functioning
Family Relations
Domestic Violence Causes
Domestic Violence Effects
Domestic Violence Offender
Domestic Violence Victim
Child Abuse Causes
Child Abuse Effects
Child Abuse Offender
Child Abuse Victim
Child Molester
Child Sexual Abuse Causes
Child Sexual Abuse Effects
Child Sexual Abuse Offender
Child Sexual Abuse Victim
Child Victim
Child Male
Childhood Experience
Childhood Victimization
Victim Turned Offender
Intergenerational Transmission of Violence
Sexual Assault Offender
Sexual Assault Effects
Sexual Assault Victim
Sexual Assault Causes
Parent Offender
Father Offender
Male Offender
Male Violence
Male Victim
Incest Offender
Incest Causes
Offender Characteristics
Adult Adjustment
Victim Adjustment
Emotional Adjustment
Psychological Adjustment


All SafetyLit records are available for automatic download to Zotero & Mendeley