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Journal Article


McDaniel WC, Stratbucker RA, Nerheim M, Brewer JE. Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 2005; 28 Suppl 1: S284-7.


University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA.


(Copyright © 2005, John Wiley and Sons)






Neuromuscular incapacitation (NMI) devices discharge a pulsed dose of electrical energy to cause muscle contraction and pain. Field data suggest electrical NMI devices present an extremely low risk of injury. One risk of delivering electricity to a human is the induction of ventricular fibrillation (VF). We hypothesized that inducing VF would require a significantly greater NMI discharge than a discharge output by fielded devices. The cardiac safety of NMI discharges was studied in nine pigs weighing 60 +/- 28 kg. The minimum fibrillating level was defined as the lowest discharge that induced VF at least once, the maximum safe level was defined as the highest discharge which could be applied five times without VF induction, and the VF threshold was defined as their average. A safety index was defined as the ratio of the VF threshold to the standard discharge level output by fielded NMI devices. A VF induction protocol was applied to each pig to estimate the VF threshold and safety index. The safety index for stored charge ranged from 15X to 42X as weight increased from 30 to 117 kg (P < 0.001). Discharge levels above standard discharge and weight were independently significant for predicting VF inducibility. The safety index for an NMI discharge was significantly and positively associated with weight. Discharge levels for standard electrical NMI devices have an extremely low probability of inducing VF.

Language: en


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