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Journal Article

Citation

Ullman SE, Peter-Hagene LC. J. Interpers. Violence 2016; 31(6): 1074-1094.

Affiliation

University of Illinois at Chicago, USA.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2016, SAGE Publishing)

DOI

10.1177/0886260514564069

PMID

25538120

Abstract

Sexual assault survivors receive various positive and negative social reactions to assault disclosures, yet little is known about the directionality of associations of social reactions to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over time. Data from a large, diverse sample of women who had experienced adult sexual assault was analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine how negative and positive reactions relate to PTSD symptoms over 3 years and to test the hypothesis that the relationship between negative social reactions and PTSD symptoms is reciprocal. We found that, as predicted, social reactions predicted subsequent PTSD symptoms, and in turn PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent social reactions. We also investigated the role of sexual revictimization by comparing women who suffered (vs. not) additional sexual victimization during the course of our study. Revictimized women had greater PTSD symptoms and more negative social reactions, but associations of social reactions with PTSD symptoms did not vary according to revictimization status. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Language: en

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