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Journal Article


Friman M, Huck J, Olsson LE. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017; 14(6): e14060581.


SAMOT/CTF Service Research Center, Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad 651 88, Sweden.


(Copyright © 2017, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






This study aims to identify the relevant empirical work, to synthesize its findings, and to thus attain a general understanding of the application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in transport behavior research. An integrative literature review was used to determine whether or not the implemented interventions impact the stages and processes of travel behavior change. Data was collected from different databases. English language articles published between 2002 and 2017 were included. After sequentially narrowing the search and removing duplicates, 53 relevant papers remained, 13 of which fulfilled the stated criteria of constituting a transport intervention study using the TTM as a reference frame. The final 13 studies were classified and categorized according to stages and processes in the TTM.

FINDINGS showed that none of the interventions met the method requirements for a proper evaluation of design and outcome measurement. Reporting did not follow a standardized structure desirable when enabling comparative analyses. Allowing for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive travel behavior changes have been obtained during some interventions. Importantly, although it was stated that the empirical studies were based on the TTM, the included interventions were implemented irrespective of the individual's stage of change. For future research, it will be necessary to conduct evaluations of higher quality.

Language: en


TTM; health; integrative review; transtheoretical model of change; travel behavior; travel interventions


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