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Journal Article


Olsson LE, Huck J, Friman M. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018; 15(2): e15020216.


CTF Service Research Center and Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.


(Copyright © 2018, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. The socio-demographics, work commute, stage of change, attitudes to sustainable travel modes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm were assessed. An initial descriptive analysis revealed that 19% of the employees saw no reason to reduce their car use; 35% would like to reduce their car use but felt it was impossible; 12% were thinking about reducing their car use but were unsure of how or when to do this; 12% had an aim to reduce current car use, and knew which journeys to replace and which modes to use; and 23% try to use modes other than a car for most journeys, and will maintain or reduce their already low car use in the coming months. A series of Ordered Logit Models showed that socio-demographic variables did not explain the stage of change. Instead, personal norms, instrumental and affective attitudes, and perceived behavioral control toward sustainable travel modes were all significant and explained 43% of the variance in stage of change. Furthermore, it was found that the significant relationships were not linear in nature. The analysis also showed an indirect effect of social norms on the stage of change through personal norms. Implications are discussed regarding the design of interventions aimed at influencing a sustainable work commute.

Language: en


attitudes; intentions; norms; perceived behavioral control; stage-based models; sustainable travel; work commute


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