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Journal Article

Citation

Chigiji H, Fry D, Mwadiwa TE, Elizalde A, Izumi N, Baago-Rasmussen L, Maternowska MC. BMJ Glob. Health 2018; 3(3): e000533.

Affiliation

Unicef Office of Research Innocenti, Florence, Italy.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2018, BMJ Publishing Group)

DOI

10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000533

PMID

29989051

PMCID

PMC6035512

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: This study provides, for the first time, comparable national population-based estimates that describe the nature and magnitude of physical and emotional violence during childhood in Zimbabwe.

METHODS: From August to September 2011, we conducted a national population-based survey of 2410 respondents aged 13-24 years, using a two-stage cluster sampling. Regression models were adjusted for relevant demographics to estimate the ORs for associations between violence, risk factors and various health-related outcomes.

RESULTS: Respondents aged 18-24 years report a lifetime prevalence (before the age of 18) of 63.9% (among girls) to 76% (among boys) for physical violence by a parent or adult relative, 12.6% (girls) to 26.4% (boys) for humiliation in front of others, and 17.3% (girls) to 17.5% (boys) for feeling unwanted. Almost 50% of either sex aged 13-17 years experienced physical violence in the 12 months preceding the survey. Significant risk factors for experiencing physical violence for girls are ever experiencing emotional abuse prior to age 13, adult illness in the home, socioeconomic status and age. Boys' risk factors include peer relationships and socioeconomic status, while caring teachers and trusted community members are protective factors. Risk factors for emotional abuse vary, including family relationships, teacher and school-level variables, socioeconomic status, and community trust and security. Emotional abuse is associated with increased suicide attempts for both boys and girls, among other health outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Physical and emotional violence often work in tandem causing poor mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding risk factors for violence within the peer or family context is essential for improved violence prevention.


Language: en

Keywords

child health; community-based survey; cross-sectional survey; prevention strategies; public health

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