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Journal Article

Citation

Ishihara M, Saito T, Sakurai T, Shimada H, Arai H. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018; 15(7): e15071472.

Affiliation

Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morioka-cho, Aichi 474-8511, Japan. harai@ncgg.go.jp.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2018, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)

DOI

10.3390/ijerph15071472

PMID

30002307

Abstract

Safer and more effective programs are required to cope with an increasing number of older people with depression. Hence, we developed the Positive Photo Appreciation (PPA) program. A three-month pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy Japanese individuals aged 65⁻84 years, assigned to a PPA group (n = 28) or Photo Correspondence Education (PCE) (control group) (n = 27). We used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures, among others, were cognitive function and positive emotion. Data collected at baseline and post-intervention were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model. Over 80% of the participants in the PPA group completed and were satisfied with the program. Compared with the PCE group, the CES-D score in the PPA group significantly improved (main effect of group: t = -4.30, p < 0.001; interaction effect of group by time: t = 4.39, p < 0.001), with an effect size of d = 1.23. Additionally, a positive significant interaction effect of group by time was found in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (t = -2.33, p = 0.024). The PPA program might be promising for mitigating depressive mood in older adults.


Language: en

Keywords

combination of multiple dimensions program; depression; mood improvement; older adults; photography; positive emotion; positive intervention; positive psychotherapy; positivity; randomized controlled trial

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