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Journal Article


Krystosik AR, Curtis A, LaBeaud AD, Dávalos DM, Pacheco R, Buritica P, Álvarez ÁA, Bhatta MP, Rojas Palacios JH, James MA. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018; 15(10): e15102144.


Department of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44240, USA.


(Copyright © 2018, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






Arboviruses are responsible for a large burden of disease globally and are thus subject to intense epidemiological scrutiny. However, a variable notably absent from most epidemiological analyses has been the impact of violence on arboviral transmission and surveillance. Violence impedes surveillance and delivery of health and preventative services and affects an individual's health-related behaviors when survival takes priority. Moreover, low and middle-income countries bear a disproportionately high burden of violence and related health outcomes, including vector borne diseases. To better understand the epidemiology of arboviral outbreaks in Cali, Colombia, we georeferenced chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV), and Zika (ZIKV) viral cases from The National System of Surveillance in Public Health between October 2014 and April 2016. We extracted homicide data from the municipal monthly reports and kernel density of homicide distribution from IdeasPaz. Crucially, an overall higher risk of homicide is associated with increased risk of reported DENV, lower rates of acute testing, and higher rates of lab versus clinical discordance. In the context of high violence as a potential barrier to access to preventive health services, a community approach to improve health and peace should be considered.

Language: en


arboviral surveillance; clinical diagnosis; community health; laboratory specificity; neighborhood violence; spatial clustering


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