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Journal Article

Citation

López-Gálvez N, Wagoner R, Beamer P, de Zapien J, Rosales C. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018; 15(12): e15122651.

Affiliation

Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1295 N. Martin Ave. PO 245210, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. crosales@email.arizona.edu.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2018, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)

DOI

10.3390/ijerph15122651

PMID

30486281

Abstract

Expanding agribusiness in Sonora, a state in Northern Mexico, has increased the demand for temporary migrant agricultural workers. Sonora is one of the top states in Mexico for pesticide utilization. We conducted an exploratory study to evaluate exposure to organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides among migrant farmworkers. A sample of 20 migrant farmworkers was recruited from a large commercial grape farm during the harvest season. We administered a questionnaire on work activities, exposure characteristics, and socio-demographics. We collected urine samples to quantify pesticide metabolite concentrations. Most participants were originally from the state of Chiapas, Mexico, none had completed high school, and about half spoke an indigenous language as well as Spanish. The majority of participants had detectable concentrations of pyrethroid and organophosphate biomarkers. Geometric mean creatinine-adjusted concentrations for 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (1.83 µg/g), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (0.88 µg/g), 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (0.94 µg/g), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3.56 µg/g), and para-nitrophenol (0.63 µg/g) were significantly higher than in the general United States' population and Mexican Americans. Our results also suggest that migrant farmworkers in this region are exposed to pesticides at higher levels than other farmworkers' studies. Farmworkers' age, language, training on personal protective equipment, time at the farm, and season, were significant exposure determinants.


Language: en

Keywords

farmworkers; occupational health; organophosphates; pesticide biomarkers; pyrethroids; urine metabolites

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