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Journal Article


Ackermann C, Beggiato M, Schubert S, Krems JF. Appl. Ergon. 2019; 75: 272-282.


Cognitive and Engineering Psychology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.


(Copyright © 2019, Elsevier Publishing)






In the near future, more vehicles will have automated functions. The traffic system will be a shared space of automated and manually driven vehicles. In our study we focused on the perspective of vulnerable road users, namely pedestrians, in cooperative situations with automated vehicles. Established communication methods, such as eye-contact between pedestrians and drivers, may no longer work when automated vehicles represent the interaction partner. Therefore, we evaluated several human-machine-interfaces (HMI) in order to implement smooth and comfortable communication. We conducted a two-stage study consisting of an explorative focus group discussion with naïve pedestrians (n = 6), followed by an experimental video simulation study (n = 25) based on the results of the focus group discussion. From the focus group we sought member opinion about various HMI, upon presentation of acoustic and visual communication systems such as projections, displays and LED light strips, in addition to portable communication systems, specifically smart watches. On the basis of the focus group discussion, an evaluation criteria was derived. For the video simulation study, HMI designs were created with variations in position, type and coding of the message, and technology. These were assessed by 25 subjects according to the focus discussion derived evaluation criteria: recognizability, unambiguousness, interaction comfort and intuitive comprehensibility. The results show that direct instructions to cross the street are preferred over status information of the vehicle and that large-scale text-based messages from the vehicle to the pedestrian, deliver better results. Design recommendations for HMIs for communication between automated vehicles are derived, and the extent external HMIs may supplement informal communication strategies such as vehicle movement or braking maneuvers, is discussed.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Language: en


Automated vehicles; HMI design recommendations; HMI evaluation; Pedestrian-automation-interaction


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