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Keller SA, Klukowska-Rötzler J, Schenk-Jaeger KM, Kupferschmidt H, Exadaktylos AK, Lehmann B, Liakoni E. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018; 15(12): e15122855.


Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.


(Copyright © 2018, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






The consequences of mushroom poisoning range from mild, mostly gastrointestinal, disturbances to organ failure or even death. This retrospective study describes presentations related to mushroom poisoning at an emergency department in Bern (Switzerland) from January 2001 to October 2017. Gastrointestinal disturbances were reported in 86% of the 51 cases. The National Poisons Information Centre and mycologists were involved in 69% and 61% of the cases, respectively. Identification of the mushroom type/family was possible in 43% of the cases. The most common mushroom family was Boletaceae (n = 21) and the most common mushrooms Xerocomus chrysenteron (n = 7; four being part of a cluster), Clitocybe nebularis, Lepista nuda and Lactarius semisanguifluus (n = 5 each, four being part of a cluster). Poisonous mushrooms included Amanita phalloides (n = 3, all analytically confirmed), Boletus satanas (n = 3), Amanita muscaria (n = 2) and Amanita pantherina (n = 2). There were no fatalities and 80% of the patients were discharged within 24 h. Mushroom poisoning does not appear to be a common reason for emergency consultation and most presentations were of minor severity and related to edible species (e.g., due to incorrect processing). Nevertheless, poisonous mushrooms and severe complications were also recorded. Collaboration with a poison centre and/or mycologists is of great importance, especially in high risk cases.

Language: en


emergency department; mushroom poisoning; mushroom toxicity


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