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Journal Article

Citation

Lee HE, Yoon SJ, Sohn JR, Huh DA, Jang SW, Moon KW. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019; 16(3): e16030347.

Affiliation

Department of Health Science, Korea University, Anam-ro 145, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea. kwmoon@korea.ac.kr.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2019, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)

DOI

10.3390/ijerph16030347

PMID

30691152

Abstract

Many chemicals used in the industrial field present risks, which differ depending on their chemical properties. Additionally, their various physicochemical properties change considerably with concentration. Many chemicals are used in customized processes in factories in the form of different aqueous solutions. The Korean Chemicals Control Act evaluates "hazardous chemicals," describes their risks to the public, and regulates their concentration. To prepare against chemical accidents, factories construct models of potential damage radius, which is greatly influenced by a chemical's vapor pressure. This study selected substances with widely varying vapor pressures (hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, aqueous ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide) and compared the results of different modeling programs (KORA, ALOHA, PHAST, and RMP*Comp) for various aqueous solution concentrations. The results showed that damage radius and vapor pressure increased similarly for each substance. Damage radius was negligible at low concentrations for all substances studied. Damage radius of ammonia solution increased with vapor pressure. Hydrogen fluoride is not found in aqueous solution at concentrations of less than 37%, and hydrogen peroxide does not show a large damage radius at low concentrations. However, the Chemicals Control Act strictly regulates hydrogen fluoride concentration beginning at 1%, hydrogen chloride and aqueous ammonia at 10%, and hydrogen peroxide at 6%. To effectively prepare against chemical accidents, we must examine scientifically-based, suitable regulations based on physicochemical properties.


Language: en

Keywords

Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA); Chemicals Control Act; Korea Off-site Risk Assessment Supporting Tool (KORA); Process Hazard Analysis Software Tool (PHAST); RMP*Comp; concentration of chemicals; vapor pressure

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