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Journal Article


Lakhdir MPA, Nathwani AA, Ali NA, Farooq S, Azam SI, Khaliq A, Kadir MM. Child Abuse Negl. 2019; 91: 109-115.


Aga Khan University, Department of Community Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:


(Copyright © 2019, Elsevier Publishing)






OBJECTIVE: Families where parents had childhood history of victimization may likely to abuse their children; hence contributing as an important predictor of child emotional maltreatment (CEM). This study aimed to determine the relationship of intergenerational abuse with CEM among 11-17 years old children residing in peri-urban and urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan.

METHOD: Structured interviews were conducted with 800 children and parents-pair using validated questionnaire "International Child Abuse Screening Tool for Child (ICAST-C)" comprised of 4 domains. Domain of child emotional maltreatment was considered as outcome (CEM-score). The relationship between Parental history of childhood victimization and CEM-Score was measured using linear regression.

RESULTS: The average CEM-score was came to be 19+5.2 among children whom parental history of childhood victimization was present (P < 0.001). The estimated mean CEM-score increased by 5.59 units (95% CI= {2.61, 8.51}) among children whom parents had a history of childhood victimization (Intergenerational abuse) with severe physical familial abuse.

CONCLUSION: The current study provided evidence on intergenerational transmission of maltreatment suggesting early prevention to break the cycle of child maltreatment through generations. Preventive measures can be taken, once a parental history of childhood victimization has been identified, by providing appropriate services to those families who belong to lower socioeconomic status, where mothers are young, presence of siblings' rivalry/ bullying and/or violence among family members. However, these factors do not explain a complete causality of the intergenerational transmission therefore additional factors, for instance parenting styles must be taken into consideration.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Language: en


Communities; Emotional child maltreatment; Intergenerational; Transmission


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