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Journal Article


Bais B, Lindeboom R, van Ravesteyn L, Tulen J, Hoogendijk W, Lambregtse-van den Berg M, Kamperman A. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019; 16(9): e16091587.


Epidemiological and Social Psychiatric Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


(Copyright © 2019, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






Poor sleep quality during pregnancy is associated with both antepartum and postpartum depression and adverse birth outcomes. This study evaluated both objective and subjective sleep quality and the effects on the subsequent course of antepartum depressive symptoms in psychiatric patients. This observational explorative study was embedded in an ongoing study focusing on pregnant women with a mental disorder and was performed in 18 patients (24-29 weeks pregnant). Depressive symptoms were assessed throughout pregnancy using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with 5-week intervals. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and sleep diaries at the start of the study. We studied correlations between sleep parameters and EPDS scores cross-sectionally using Spearman correlation. Next, we studied the course of antepartum EPDS scores over time per sleep parameter using generalized linear mixed modelling analysis.

OBJECTIVEly measured fragmentation index, total PSQI score and 4 PSQI subscales (sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunctions) were significantly correlated with EPDS scores when measured cross-sectionally at the start. Six objectively and subjectively measured sleep parameters had moderate to large effects on the course of depressive symptoms through the third trimester, but these effects were not statistically significant. More research is necessary to explore the causality of the direction between sleep problems and antepartum depressive symptoms we found in psychiatric patients.

Language: en


antepartum depression; circadian rhythm; depression; depressive disorder; pregnancy; sleep


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