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Journal Article

Citation

Almahmoud K, Abboud A, Namas RA, Zamora R, Sperry J, Peitzman AB, Truitt MS, Gaski GE, McKinley TO, Billiar TR, Vodovotz Y. PLoS One 2019; 14(6): e0217577.

Affiliation

Center for Inflammation and Regenerative Modeling, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2019, Public Library of Science)

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0217577

PMID

31163056

Abstract

Extremity and soft tissue injuries contribute significantly to inflammation and adverse in-hospital outcomes for trauma survivors; accordingly, we examined the complex association between clinical outcomes inflammatory responses in this setting using in silico tools. Two stringently propensity-matched, moderately/severely injured (Injury Severity Score > 16) patient sub-cohorts of ~30 patients each were derived retrospectively from a cohort of 472 blunt trauma survivors and segregated based on their degree of extremity injury severity (above or below 3 on the Abbreviated Injury Scale). Serial blood samples were analyzed for 31 plasma inflammatory mediators. In addition to standard statistical analyses, Dynamic Network Analysis (DyNA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to model systemic inflammation following trauma. Patients in the severe extremity injury sub-cohort experienced longer intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), total LOS, and days on a mechanical ventilator, with higher Marshall Multiple Organ Dysfunction (MOD) Scores over the first 7 days post-injury as compared to the mild/moderate extremity injury sub-cohort. The higher severity cohort had statistically significant elevated lactate, base deficit, and creatine phosphokinase on first blood draw, along with significant changes in multiple circulating inflammatory mediators. DyNA pointed to a sustained role for type 17 immunity in both sub-cohorts, along with IFN-γ in the severe extremity injury group. DyNA network complexity increased over 7 days post-injury in the severe injury group, while generally decreasing over this same time period in the mild/moderate injury group. PCA suggested a more robust activation of multiple pathways in the severe extremity injury group as compared to the mild/moderate injury group. These studies thus point to the possibility of self-sustaining inflammation following severe extremity injury vs. resolving inflammation following less severe extremity injury.


Language: en

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