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Journal Article


Mirandola D, Monaci M, Miccinesi G, Vannuzzi A, Sgambati E, Manetti M, Marini M. PLoS One 2019; 14(6): e0218124.


Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.


(Copyright © 2019, Public Library of Science)






Italian baseball played by visually impaired and blind athletes is an adapted team sport which maintains the peculiar fast-moving features of this popular sport. It is also a mixed team game played together with sighted subjects. Here, we performed a national survey aimed at assessing the differences in psychological well-being (PWB) and quality of life (QoL) between visually impaired baseball players from Italian teams and non-players using a structured online questionnaire. Forty-three visually impaired baseball players and thirty-four visually impaired sedentary individuals completed a structured self-report survey including the validated 18-item Italian versions of the PWB (PWB-18) scale and the Short Form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire to assess the QoL. PWB-18 and SF-12 reference data from the Italian normally sighted population were also employed for comparison with the visually impaired baseball player group. Visually impaired baseball players reported better scores in all dimensions of the PWB-18 scale and significant higher scores in both physical and mental QoL evaluated by SF-12 than the non-player group. In addition, PWB-18 scale findings revealed significant differences between visually impaired baseball players and the reference normally sighted population consisting in lower scores for autonomy, environmental mastery, positive relations with others and purpose in life dimensions. Conversely, the mean scores for PWB-18 personal growth and self-acceptance dimensions were not significantly different between the two groups. The SF-12 questionnaire results demonstrated a significantly higher physical score in visually impaired players compared with the reference population. Instead, the SF-12 mental score of visually impaired athletes tended to be lower, though this difference was not statistically significant. Collectively, our findings suggest that the practice of Italian baseball may have a positive impact on PWB and QoL of visually impaired individuals.

Language: en


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