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Journal Article


Esaki Y, Kitajima T, Obayashi K, Saeki K, Fujita K, Iwata N. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2019; 116: 151-156.


Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan.


(Copyright © 2019, Elsevier Publishing)






OBJECTIVES: Controlled artificial daylight exposure, such as light therapy, is effective in bipolar depression, but the association between uncontrolled daytime light and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder (BD) is unclear. This study investigated the association between daytime light exposure under real-life situations and depressive symptom in patients with BD.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 181 outpatients with BD. The average daytime light intensity and the total duration of light intensity of ≥1000 lux were recorded over 7 consecutive days using an actigraph that measured ambient light. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and scores of ≥8 points were treated as depressed state.

RESULTS: Ninety-seven (53.6%) subjects were depressed state. At higher average daytime light intensity tertiles, the proportion of depressed state was significantly lower (P for trend, 0.003). In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, employment status, age at onset of BD, Young Mania Rating Scale score, bedtime, and physical activity, the highest tertile group in average daytime light intensity suggested a significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depressed state than the lowest tertile group (OR, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.75; P = 0.009). Similarly, the longest tertile group in light intensity ≥1000 lux duration was significantly associated with lower OR for depressed state than lowest tertile group (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.93; P = 0.033).

CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that greater daytime light exposure in daily life is associated with decreased depressive symptoms in BD.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Language: en


Actigraphy; Bipolar disorder; Circadian rhythm; Depressive symptom; Light exposure


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