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Journal Article


Jovanovic N, Petrovic B, Kojic S, Sipovac M, Markovic D, Stefanovic S, Stojanovic G. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019; 16(13): e16132434.


Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.


(Copyright © 2019, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






BACKGROUND: All objects put into a child's mouth could be hazardous in terms of trauma and toxic substance exposure. The aims of this study were to evaluate morphological characteristics of the primary teeth bite marks inflicted on various materials and to assess material wear using experimental model.

METHODS: Bite marks were analyzed on five materials: rubber, plastic, foil, wood, and silicone. In order to mimic children mouthing behavior an experimental setup has been designed using primary teeth placed in dentures and children's equipment specimens.

RESULTS: Deciduous teeth make visible and recognizable traces when using physiological forces on all investigated materials. The most significant material loss was revealed in silicone samples, but it has been observed in all material groups, while mouthing with incisors using higher mastication forces were identified as significant predictors for material wear. There were no significant differences between type, species, and morphological-morphometric characteristics of the bite marks which are made by incisors, canines, and molars.

CONCLUSIONS: In the range of physiological bite forces, deciduous teeth lead to wear of material from which toys are made while the analysis of bite marks in children equipment could give some information regarding the risk of trauma and exposure.

Language: en


bite marks; exposure; health risk; primary teeth; toys


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