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Journal Article


Chen F, Song M, Ma X. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019; 16(14): e16142632.


The Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering, Ministry of Education Tongji University, Shanghai, China.


(Copyright © 2019, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






The existing studies on drivers' injury severity include numerous statistical models that assess potential factors affecting the level of injury. These models should address specific concerns tailored to different crash characteristics. For rear-end crashes, potential correlation in injury severity may present between the two drivers involved in the same crash. Moreover, there may exist unobserved heterogeneity considering parameter effects, which may vary across both crashes and individuals. To address these concerns, a random parameters bivariate ordered probit model has been developed to examine factors affecting injury sustained by two drivers involved in the same rear-end crash between passenger cars. Taking both the within-crash correlation and unobserved heterogeneity into consideration, the proposed model outperforms the two separate ordered probit models with fixed parameters. The value of the correlation parameter demonstrates that there indeed exists significant correlation between two drivers' injuries. Driver age, gender, vehicle, airbag or seat belt use, traffic flow, etc., are found to affect injury severity for both the two drivers. Some differences can also be found between the two drivers, such as the effect of light condition, crash season, crash position, etc. The approach utilized provides a possible use for dealing with similar injury severity analysis in future work.

Language: en


injury severity; random parameter bivariate ordered probit; rear-end crash


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