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Journal Article


Ortiz-Prado E, Mascialino G, Paz C, Rodriguez-Lorenzana A, Gómez-Barreno L, Simbaña-Rivera K, Diaz AM, Coral-Almeida M, Espinosa PS. Neuroepidemiology 2019; ePub(ePub): ePub.


Chief of Neurology, Marcus Neuroscience Institute, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.


(Copyright © 2019, Karger Publishers)






OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem worldwide. Information regarding TBI from low- and middle-income countries is scarce. The objectives of this study are to determine the incidence, mortality and geodemographic distribution of TBI in Ecuador.

METHODS: A population-based analytical study from 2004 to 2016 was conducted in Ecuador. Men and women with a diagnosis of TBI from all ages (0-110 years) were included. Data was obtained from official hospital-discharges records and retrieved from the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) Database. We analyzed data by region, province and canton with a monthly resolution. The incidence, mortality, case fatality rates and the risk of developing TBI within the population were calculated based on the last 13 years of available data.

RESULTS: A total of 124,576 hospital admissions and 5,264 deaths due to TBI were registered in Ecuador from 2004 to 2016. The overall TBI-related hospital admission rate was 70.68 per 100,000. The sex- and age-specific rate was 90.1 per 100,000 for men and 64.1 per 100,000 for women. Mestizos' population has the highest adjusted incidence rate of 195.6 per 100,000, followed by the indigenous with 61.4 per 100,000 and Afro-Americans with 14.2 per 100,000. The overall annual mortality rate during the study ranged from 2.11 to 3.35 per 100,000. Case fatality rates were significantly higher in older populations, becoming fatal in up to 27% of men >90 years/old and in 15% of women older than 90 years/old.

CONCLUSION: This is the first recorded epidemiological study of the socio-demographic distribution of TBI in Ecuador to date. The study found that young men were almost 4 times more likely to be hospitalized due to TBI than women of this age. Fatalities due to TBI were less likely to occur among younger age groups, increasing significantly among the elderly population. The national incidence rate of TBI has been decreasing since 2011, which coincides with the introduction of stricter alcohol regulation, suggesting that this measure might have played a role in this reduction.

© 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Language: en


Brain; Ecuador; Epidemiology; Intracranial injury; Traumatic brain injury


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