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Journal Article


Biever W, Angell L, Seaman S. Hum. Factors 2019; ePub(ePub): ePub.


Touchstone Evaluations Inc., Detroit, MI, USA.


(Copyright © 2019, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Publisher SAGE Publishing)






OBJECTIVE: This research evaluated Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) involved collisions to identify factors relevant to future ADS research and development.

BACKGROUND: Rapidly developing ADSs promise improved safety, among other benefits. Properly applied collision research can inform ADS development, to minimize future collisions. Errors and failures that result in collisions come from sources including the system, ADS operators, and external factors including other drivers. Partially automated systems incorporate new equipment and procedures creating new sources of human error. Fully autonomous systems represent a new class of drivers that interact in unique ways.

METHOD: ADS collision reports from the California Department of Motor Vehicles and the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. An expert in human factors and collision investigation analyzed and categorized the crashes while extracting common factors.

RESULTS: ADS vehicles were never at fault but were often affected from the rear during braking, turning, and gap acceptance maneuvers. Side impacts to ADS vehicles were related to passing vehicles and lane keeping behaviors. Unique incidents also provided additional insights. ADS collision rates cannot yet be determined with confidence.

CONCLUSION: Conflicts that lead to collision-involvement with ADSs may be caused by differences between ADS and human driving behavior. Conservative ADS behavior may violate the expectations of other nearby human road users. APPLICATION: The findings from this work help inform the future development of ADS, as well as potentially the testing of ADS and the formation of policy to guide their future deployment.

Language: en


accident reconstruction; autonomous vehicle; collision analysis; self-driving


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