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Journal Article


Valier ARS, Bliven KCH, Gibson A, Simon J, Dompier TP, Wasserman EB, Rynard KL, Kerr ZY. J. Athl. Train. 2020; ePub(ePub): ePub.


Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


(Copyright © 2020, National Athletic Trainers' Association (USA))






CONTEXT: Most studies of injury trends associated with softball focus on injuries requiring at least 24 hours of missed participation time (time-loss [TL] injuries), with little focus on those that do not (non-time-loss [NTL] injuries). A better understanding of injury trends associated with softball will improve athlete care.

OBJECTIVE: To describe non-time-loss (NTL) and time-loss (TL) injuries experienced by secondary school girls' softball players.

DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Secondary school athletic training clinics. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Secondary school girls' softball players. INTERVENTION(S): Aggregate data were collected from schools participating in the National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network surveillance program during the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Frequencies and rates of injuries (NTL and TL) according to time of season, event type, body part injured, and diagnosis were analyzed.

RESULTS: In total, 1059 injuries were reported during 140 073 athlete-exposures (AEs): overall injury rate = 7.56/1000 AEs. Of these injuries, 885 (83.6%) were NTL (NTL rate = 6.32/1000 AEs) and 174 (16.4%) were TL (TL rate = 1.24/1000 AEs). Of the NTL and TL injuries, the largest numbers occurred during the regular season (NTL: n = 443 [50.1%]; TL: n = 131 [75.3%]). Injuries sustained during practices accounted for the majority of NTL and TL injuries (NTL: n = 631 [71.3%]; TL: n = 104 [59.8%]). The NTL injuries occurred most often at the shoulder (n = 134 [15.1%]) and hand/fingers (n = 109 [12.3%]) and were diagnosed as contusions (n = 316 [35.7%]), strains (n = 157 [17.7%]), and abrasions (n = 151 [17.1%]). The largest numbers of TL injuries were to the head/face (n = 71 [40.8%]) and diagnosed as concussions (n = 50 [28.7%]) and strains (n = 28 [16.1%]).

CONCLUSIONS: Secondary school softball players sustained a larger proportion of NTL injuries than TL injuries. Although NTL injuries may be less severe, they are numerous. Efforts are needed to ensure that injury-prevention programs are incorporated into the care of softball athletes to promote health and reduce injury occurrence.

Language: en


athletes; epidemiology; females; injury surveillance


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