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Journal Article


Sverdlichenko I, Jansen K, Souza LDM, da Silva RA, Kapczinski F, Cardoso TA. J. Affect. Disord. 2020; 266: 252-257.


Mood Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Health and Behavior, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:


(Copyright © 2020, Elsevier Publishing)






BACKGROUND: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among young adults worldwide, and few studies have assessed the factors associated with suicidality in this specific population. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the association between mixed episodes and suicidality in a community sample of young adults. For this aim, we compared young adults in a mixed episode with individuals in a depressive or (hypo)manic episode, and community controls.

METHOD: This is a cross-sectional population-based study including young adults aged 18-24 years old. Information about participants' age, sex, self-reported skin color and study status were obtained using a sociodemographic questionnaire. Mixed, (hypo)manic and depressive episodes, as well as suicide risk were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview.

RESULTS: The sample included 1560 individuals. Young adults in a mixed episode showed a 13.50 times higher probability to have suicide risk, as compared to community controls (p < 0.001), 5.67 higher probability to have suicide risk as compared to individuals in a (hypo)manic episode (p < 0.001), and 2.18 times higher probability to have suicide risk as compared to young adults in a depressive episode (p < 0.001). LIMITATION: The assessment of suicide risk includes both suicide attempts and ideation.

CONCLUSION: Young adults in a mixed episode showed a higher rate of suicide risk than individuals with depression or mania/hypomania. Considering the already increasing prevalence of suicide among young adults, there is an urgent need for the early diagnosis and treatment of mixed episodes in this specific population.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Language: en


Mixed episode; Mood episodes; Suicidality; Suicide risk


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