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Journal Article

Citation

Kneavel ME, Ernst W, McCarthy KS. J. Athl. Train. 2020; ePub(ePub): ePub.

Affiliation

Center for Concussion Education and Research, Chestnut Hill College, Philadelphia, PA.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2020, National Athletic Trainers' Association (USA))

DOI

10.4085/1062-6050-0182.19

PMID

32298143

Abstract

CONTEXT: The National Collegiate Athletic Association and U.S. Department of Defense have called for educational programs to change the culture of concussion reporting, increase reporting behavior, and enhance the safety of players.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a novel peer concussion-education program (PCEP) in changing knowledge, attitudes, and norms about concussion reporting among collegiate student-athletes and assess program implementation.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial and qualitative analysis of interviews. SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association athletic teams from randomly selected colleges or universities. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1614 male and female student-athletes from 60 teams at 10 colleges and universities and 8 athletic trainers. INTERVENTION(S): The PCEP intervention trains 2 peer concussion educators to provide 2 education modules to their teammates. Knowledge, attitudes (oneself and teammates), and concussion occurrence or reporting were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 1 month later. Eight athletic trainers were interviewed about program implementation.

RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed greater increases occurred postintervention and at 1 month in concussion knowledge (F1,2648 = 51.3, P <.0001), intention to report (oneself, F2,2633 = 82.3, P <.0001; teammates, F2,2624 = 53.9, P <.0001), return-to-play protocol knowledge, (F2,2632 = 28.4, P <.0001), direct subjective norms (oneself, F2,2625 = 51.7, P <.0001; teammates, F2,2644 = 40.6, P <.0001), direct perceived behavioral control (oneself, F2,2628 = 53.7, P <.0001; teammates, F2,2615 = 68.2, P <.0001) and indirect attitudes (oneself, F2,2626 = 47.1, P <.001; teammates, F2,2623 = 40.9, P <.0001). Peer concussion-education program participants discussed concussion more often with a teammate (F1,1396 = 13.96, P <.0001) or athletic staff (F1,1396 = 6.62, P <.001). Qualitative program analysis revealed both positive aspects of the PCEP and areas for improvement.

CONCLUSIONS: The PCEP showed promise in increasing concussion knowledge, intention to report concussion, reporting a teammate's concussion, and facilitating attitudinal changes that support reporting among student-athletes.


Language: en

Keywords

attitudes; concussion reporting; mild traumatic brain injuries; randomized trial

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