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Journal Article


Amin R, Iqbal A, Naeem F, Irfan M. Behav. Cognit. Psychother. 2020; ePub(ePub): ePub.


(Copyright © 2020, British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies, Publisher Cambridge University Press)






BACKGROUND: Social anxiety is common among adolescents in Pakistan and is associated with low self-esteem. Among the recommended treatments, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective, and self-help approaches are encouraged.

AIM: To determine the effectiveness of culturally adapted CBT-based guided self-help (CACBT-GSH) intervention, using a manual 'Khushi aur Khatoon', for treating social anxiety when added to treatment as usual (TAU) compared with TAU only.

METHOD: A total of 76 adolescents with social anxiety aged 13-16 years from six schools in Multan, Pakistan were recruited into this randomized controlled trial. Participants were divided into intervention and control groups in a 1:1 ratio. Social anxiety, self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation were assessed through the Liebowtiz Social Anxiety Scale for children and adolescents, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, respectively, at baseline and at the end of the study. Guided self-help using culturally adapted CBT (CACBT)-based self-help manual (eight sessions, one session per week) was provided to the intervention group. The effect of the CACBT-GSH intervention was analysed with ANCOVA.

RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the intervention and the control groups in favour of intervention. Participants in the intervention group showed reduced symptoms of social anxiety (p <.001), fear of negative evaluation (p <.001) and enhanced self-esteem (p <.001).

CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated the effectiveness of CACBT-based guided self-help intervention in treating social anxiety and addressing the symptoms associated with it.

Language: en


culture; social anxiety; self-esteem; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); guided self-help


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