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Journal Article


Matta M, Volpe RJ, Briesch AM, Owens JS. J. Sch. Psychol. 2020; 81: 28-46.


(Copyright © 2020, Society for the Study of School Psychology, Publisher Elsevier Publishing)






Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a tool designed for the assessment of behavioral changes over time. Unlike methods for summative evaluations, the development of progress monitoring tools requires evaluation of sensitivity to change. The present study aimed to evaluate this psychometric feature of five newly developed DBR Multi-Item Scales (DBR-MIS). Teachers identified students with behaviors interfering with their learning or the learning of others and implemented a Daily Report Card (DRC) intervention in the classroom settings for two months. The analyses were performed on 31 AB single case studies. Change metrics were calculated at an individual level by using Tau-UA vs. B + trend B and Hedges' g and at a scale-level by using Mixed Effect Meta-Analysis, Hierarchical Linear Models (HLMs), and Between-Case Standardized Mean Difference (BC-SMD). HLMs were estimated considering both fixed and random effects of intervention and linear trend within the intervention phase. The results supported sensitivity to change for three DBR-MIS (i.e., Academic Engagement, Organizational Skills, and Disruptive Behavior), and the relative magnitudes were consistent across the metrics. Sensitivity to change of DBR-MIS Interpersonal Skills received moderate support. Conversely, empirical evidence was not provided for sensitivity to change of DBR-MIS Oppositional Behavior. Particular emphasis was placed on the intervention trend in that responses to behavioral interventions might occur gradually or require consistency over time in order to be observed by raters. Implications for the use of the new DBR-MIS in the context of progress monitoring of social-emotional behaviors are discussed.

Language: en


BC-SMD; Direct Behavior Rating; Progress monitoring; Sensitivity to change; Single case study design; Tau-U


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