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Journal Article


Eze-Ajoku E, Fakeye O, Atanda A, Sosina OA. J. Interpers. Violence 2020; ePub(ePub): ePub.


(Copyright © 2020, SAGE Publishing)






We evaluated whether markers of economic empowerment are associated with a tolerant attitude toward spousal physical violence (SPV) among employed married women in Nigeria. Cross-sectional analyses of responses to the 2013 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey by a nationally representative sample of 3,999 women aged 15 to 49 years who reported being employed and married. Tolerance for SPV was defined as supporting statements with justifications for wife-beating. Logistic regression assessed the associations of reporting tolerance for SPV with educational attainment and interspousal equivalency in income, controlling for previous exposure to domestic abuse. The prevalence of tolerance for SPV among the sample was 37%. Women with tertiary education had lower odds of tolerance for SPV relative to their counterparts without formal education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.12, 0.40], p <.0001). Compared with women with similar income levels as their partners, women who either earned more (aOR = 2.77, 95% CI = [1.36, 5.62], p =.005) or earned less income relative to their spouses (aOR = 1.93, 95% CI = [1.14, 3.26], p =.02) had higher odds of tolerance for SPV. Odds of tolerance for SPV were also higher among women reporting previous spousal abuse than among their counterparts without such a history (aOR = 1.55, 95% CI = [1.14, 2.12], p =.006). A history of nonspousal abuse was associated with lower odds of tolerance for SPV (aOR = 0.56, 95% CI = [0.37, 0.84], p =.005). Lower educational attainment and interspousal differences in income may contribute to tolerance of SPV. Efforts to increase economic empowerment should be combined with education to recognize cultural norms that foster SPV and build skills to exit violent relationships.

Language: en


contextual factors; domestic violence; attitudes to violence; tolerance; women empowerment


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