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Journal Article

Citation

Ma Y, Qi S, Zhang Y, Lian G, Lu W, Chan CY. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020; 17(15): e5366.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2020, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)

DOI

10.3390/ijerph17155366

PMID

32722496

Abstract

In this study, an on-road driving experiment was designed to investigate the visual attention fixation and transition characteristics of drivers when they are under different cognitive workloads. First, visual attention was macroscopically analyzed through the entropy method. Second, the Markov glance one- and two-step transition probability matrices were constructed, which can study the visual transition characteristics under different conditions from a microscopic perspective.

RESULTS indicate that the fixation entropy value of male drivers is 23.08% higher than that of female drivers. Under the normal driving state, drivers' fixation on in-vehicle systems is not continuous and usually shifts to the front and left areas quickly after such fixation. When under cognitive workload, drivers' vision transition is concentrated only in the front and right areas. In mild cognitive workload, drivers' sight trajectory is mainly focused on the distant front area. As the workload level increases, the transition trajectory shifts to the junction near the front and far sides. The current study finds that the difference between an on-road test and a driving simulation is that during the on-road driving process, drivers are twice as attentive to the front area than to the driving simulator. The research provides practical guidance for the improvement of traffic safety.


Language: en

Keywords

cognitive workload; entropy method; Markov processes; on-road experiment; visual fixation characteristics; visual transition characteristics

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