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Journal Article


Voinescu A, Morgan PL, Alford C, Caleb-Solly P. Transp. Res. F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 2020; 72: 244-263.


(Copyright © 2020, Elsevier Publishing)






The design of the traditional vehicle human-machine interfaces (HMIs) is undergoing major change as we move towards fully connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). Given the diversity of user requirements and preferences, it is vital for designers to gain a deeper understanding of any underlying factors that could impact usability. The current study employs a range of carefully selected psychological measures to investigate the relationship with self-report usability of an in-CAV HMI integrated into a fully automated Level 5 simulator, during simulated journeys. Twenty-five older adults (65-years+) participated and were exposed to four journeys in a virtual reality fully automated CAV simulator (with video recorded journeys) into which our HMI was integrated. Participants completed a range of scales and questionnaires, as well as computerized cognitive tests. Key measures were: perceived usability of the HMI, cognitive performance, personality, attitudes towards computers, trust in technology, simulator sickness, presence and emotion. HMI perceived usability correlated positively with cognitive performance (e.g., working memory) and some individual characteristics such as trust in technology and negatively with neuroticism anxiety. Simulator sickness was associated negatively with CAV HMI perceived usability. Positive emotions correlated positively with reported usability across all four journeys, while negative emotions were negatively associated with usability only in the case of the last two journeys. Increased sense of presence in the virtual CAV simulator was not associated with usability. Implications for design are critically discussed. Our research is highly relevant in the design of high-fully automated vehicle HMIs, particularly for older adults, and in informing policy-makers and automated mobility providers of how to improve older people's uptake of this technology.

Language: en


Connected automated vehicles; Fully automated driverless cars; Human machine interface; Individual differences; Older adults; Usability


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