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Journal Article


Simon JE, Lorence M, Docherty CL. J. Athl. Train. 2020; ePub(ePub): ePub.


(Copyright © 2020, National Athletic Trainers' Association (USA))






CONTEXT: The effect of athletic participation on lifelong health among elite athletes has received increasing attention as sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on long-term health.

OBJECTIVE: Determine the current health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in former Division I athletes compared with non-collegiate athletes five-years following an initial assessment.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort Setting: Online survey Participants: For the former Division I athletes, 193 responses were received (response rate, 83.2%, 128 males, 65 females, 58.47±6.17years) and for the non-collegiate athletes, 169 surveys were returned (response rate, 75.1%, 80 males, 89 females; 58.44 ± 7.28years).

INTERVENTIONS: The independent variables were time (baseline, five years post) and group (former Division I athlete and non-collegiate athlete).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed seven Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scales: sleep, anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain interference, physical function, and satisfaction with participation in social roles.

RESULTS: Physical function, depression, fatigue, sleep, and pain were significant for time × group (p<0.05) with the largest differences seen on physical function and pain between groups at time point 2 (22.19 and 13.99 points, respectively). Former Division I athletes had worse scores on physical function, depression, fatigue, and pain between the two points (p<0.05) with the largest differences seen on the depression, physical function, and fatigue scales (8.33, 6.61, and 6.23 points, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Due to the competitive nature of sport, long term risks of diminished HRQoL need to become a priority for healthcare providers and athletes during their athletic career. Additionally, physical activity transition programs need to be explored to help senior student-athletes transition from highly structured and competitive collegiate athletics to lifestyle physical activity as it appears that individuals in the non-collegiate athlete cohort engage in more physical activity, weigh less, and have increased HRQoL.

Language: en


patient-reported outcomes; PROMIS; retired athlete


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