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Journal Article


Callahan CE, Kay MC, Kerr ZY, Hinson MT, Linnan LA, Hennink-Kaminski H, Gildner P, Marshall SW, Houston MN, Cameron KL, Register-Mihalik JK. J. Athl. Train. 2020; ePub(ePub): ePub.


(Copyright © 2020, National Athletic Trainers' Association (USA))






CONTEXT: There are limited data concerning differences in concussion education exposure and how education exposures relates to care-seeking and symptom disclosure, specifically in Division I student-athletes.

OBJECTIVE: Investigate demographic characteristics associated with concussion education exposure and examine whether overall education exposure (yes vs. no) and education source exposure number (multiple sources vs. single source) affects concussion care-seeking and disclosure factors in Division I student-athletes.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: Classroom or online.

PARTICIPANTS: NCAA Division I student-athletes (n=341).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Frequencies and proportions were computed for sex, race, school year, sport, and concussion history across concussion education groups. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) quantified the association between student-athlete characteristics and 1) overall concussion education exposure and 2) source exposure number. Separate multivariable linear regression models estimated adjusted mean differences (MD) and 95%CI to assess differences in concussion knowledge, attitudes, and perceived social norms relative to concussion education exposure and exposure to multiple sources. Separate multivariable binomial regression models estimated adjusted PRs and 95%CI to assess associations of intention, perceived control, and care-seeking/disclosure behaviors and overall concussion education exposure and exposure to multiple sources. All models controlled for sex, sport, and concussion history.

RESULTS: Overall, n=276 (80.9%) reported previous concussion education, with 179 (64.9%) exposed to multiple sources. Student-athletes that participated in a contact sport (adjusted PR=1.24, 95%CI=1.06,1.44) and those who had a concussion history (adjusted PR=1.19, 95%CI=1.09,1.31) had higher prevalence of previous concussion education exposure. Females had a lower prevalence of reporting multiple sources (adjusted PR=0.82, 95%CI=0.68, 0.99). Overall concussion education exposure was significantly associated with more favorable perceived social norms surrounding concussion care-seeking (adjusted MD=1.37, 95%CI=0.13,2.61).

CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight potential differences in overall concussion education exposure and provide clinicians with information on groups who may benefit from targeted additional education.

Language: en


mild traumatic brain injury; concussion; concussion prevention


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