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Journal Article


Tong WY, Tan SW, Chong SL. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 2021; 50(2): 119-125.


(Copyright © 2021, Academy of Medicine, Singapore)






INTRODUCTION: Head injuries occur commonly in children and can lead to concussion injuries. We aim to describe the epidemiology of head injuries among school-going children and identify predictors of brain concussions in Singapore.

METHODS: This is a retrospective study of children 7-16 years old who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) of KK Women's and Children's Hospital in Singapore with minor head injury between June 2017 and August 2018. Data including demographics, clinical presentation, ED and hospital management were collected using a standardised electronic template. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify early predictors for brain concussion. Concussion symptoms were defined as persistent symptoms after admission, need for inpatient intervention, or physician concerns necessitating neuroimaging.

RESULTS: Among 1,233 children (mean age, 6.6 years; 72.6% boys) analysed, the commonest mechanism was falls (64.6%). Headache and vomiting were the most common presenting symptoms. A total of 395 (32.0%) patients required admission, and 277 (22.5%) had symptoms of concussion. Older age (13-16 years old) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.08), children involved in road traffic accidents (aOR 2.12, CI 1.17-3.85) and a presenting complaint of headache (aOR 2.64, CI 1.99-3.50) were significantly associated with symptoms of concussion.

CONCLUSION: This study provides a detailed description of the pattern of head injuries among school-going children in Singapore. High risk patients may require closer monitoring to detect post-concussion syndrome early.

Language: en


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