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Journal Article


Dang DC, Suh YS. Sensors (Basel) 2021; 21(10).


(Copyright © 2021, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






This paper presents a Kalman filter-based attitude estimation algorithm using a single body-mounted inertial sensor consisting of a triaxial accelerometer and triaxial gyroscope. The proposed algorithm has been developed for attitude estimation during dynamic conditions such as walking and running. Based on the repetitive properties of the velocity signal of human gait during walking, a novel velocity-aided observation is used as a measurement update for the filter. The performance has been evaluated in comparison to two standard Kalman filters with different measurement update methods and a smoother algorithm which is formulated in the form of a quadratic optimization problem. Whereas two standard Kalman filters give maximum 5 degrees in both pitch and roll error for short walking case, their performance gradually decrease with longer walking distance. The proposed algorithm shows the error of about 3 degrees in 15 m walking case, and indicate the robustness of the method with the same performance in 75 m trials. As far as the accuracy of the estimation is concerned, the proposed method achieves advantageous results due to its periodic error correction capability in both short and long walking cases at varying speeds. In addition, in terms of practicality and stability, with simple parameter settings and without the need of all-time data, the algorithm can achieve smoothing-algorithm-performance level with lower computational resources.

Language: en


attitude estimation; body-mounted; inertial sensor; Kalman filter; velocity observation


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