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Journal Article


Azeredo CM, Marques ES, Okada LM, Peres MFT. J. Interpers. Violence 2022; ePub(ePub): ePub.


(Copyright © 2022, SAGE Publishing)






The role of contextual-level factors in bullying is still not clear, and evidence is mostly from high-income countries. Our objective was to investigate the association between community violence, disorder, school environment and bullying among school adolescents. We used data from a representative sample of 9th grade Brazilian adolescents (n = 2108) from the Sao Paulo Project for the social development of children and adolescents (SP - PROSO). Multilevel logistic regression models stratified by sex were used to assess the association between variables at student and school/neighbourhood level and bullying victimization or perpetration. For both sexes, we found that adolescents who perceived high violence between students and high school disorder were more likely to be bullies and victims. Boys who perceived high community violence and disorder in their neighbourhood were more likely to be bullies (OR(3tertile) = 2.73 CI95%: 1.57-4.74). Girls attending schools where the principal reported high community violence and disorder in the neighbourhood (OR(high) = 10.24 CI95%: 2.11-49.59) and inside the school (OR(high) = 6.83 CI95%: 1.48-31.56) were more likely to be bullies. Boys from schools whose principal perceived violence between students were less likely to be victims (OR(high) = 0.35 CI95%: 0.16-0.78) and bullies (OR(high) = 0.21 CI95%: 0.07-0.64). Girls attending schools with signs or posters about tolerance/gender equality and about violence were less (OR = 0.12 CI95%: 0.03-0.50) and more likely (OR = 25.88 CI95%: 4.28-156.63) to report being bullies, respectively. Community violence, disorder and school environment were associated with bullying victimization and perpetration among adolescents. Sex-specific associations should be further investigated. Prevention and management of school violence in adolescence should consider contextual-level characteristics.

Language: en


bullying; violence exposure; youth violence; community violence


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