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Journal Article


Schimelpfenig SS, Jacobsen B. Pediatr. Rev. 2022; 43(8): 449-457.


(Copyright © 2022, American Academy of Pediatrics)






Cold weather injuries are relevant concerns for children during winter sports and outdoor activities. To mitigate the risk of cold injury in this high-risk population, providers can educate parents on proper outdoor attire as well as the added risks of wind and water exposure. There are 2 types of environmental cold injuries: freezing injuries and nonfreezing injuries. Frostbite is a freezing injury from direct contact with cold air or surfaces. The extent of injury depends on the depth to which the freezing extends. Treatment involves rewarming the frozen tissue with warm water baths and considering analgesia. Hypothermia is a nonfreezing cold injury, and it can occur even when ambient temperatures are above freezing. When there is a decrease in the body's core temperature, hypothermia progresses from mild to severe symptoms. Treatment of hypothermia is threefold but is also dependent on the core body temperature, as colder core temperatures will require more aggressive warming techniques. Hypothermia treatment involves passive protection from further heat loss (ie, removing wet clothing), which helps the body to warm itself. Treatment also involves active external rewarming wherein a heat source, such as a heated blanket, is used to increase body temperature. Active internal rewarming is the delivery of heat inside the patient's body, such as warmed intravenous fluids.

Language: en


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