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Yang M, Leung LY, Lim ZY, Ang RW, Ip HM, Lee XQ, Lim KY, Teoh LC, Yeung MT. J. Clin. Med. 2024; 13(12): e3507.


(Copyright © 2024, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






OBJECTIVES: Gait speed indicates the individual's functional status and predicts overall health. This study aims to determine (1) the intra- and inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the dynamic 4 m gait speed test protocol; (2) establish the normative reference values of habitual and fast gait speeds in community-dwelling healthy Singaporean adults aged 21 to 80; and (3) explore the association of age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) on gait speed.

METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study recruited healthy ambulatory community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 21 to 80 who could ambulate independently without aid. Participants were excluded if they required walking aids; were pregnant; or had physical, medical, or cognitive conditions that may affect gait. Each participant completed at least two habitual and fast gait speed test trials via a 4 m walkway with a dynamic start. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, the Spearman coefficient, and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

RESULTS: In total, 178 males and 201 females were included in the data analysis. The median age was 45.0 years [interquartile range (IQR) 26.2-59.0], and the median height was 1.64 metres (m) (IQR 1.58-1.70). The median habitual gait speed was 1.08 metre/second (m/s) (IQR 0.97-1.22), and the fast gait speed was 1.55 m/s (IQR 1.40-1.70). The ICC for reliability ranged from 0.84 to 0.99, indicating that the 4 m gait speed test had good-to-excellent reliability.

CONCLUSIONS: Gait speeds were not influenced by gender but declined with age advancement. Age and height and age and BMI were weakly correlated to habitual and fast gait speed, respectively. We established the norm values for the 4 m gait speeds in Singapore and proved it to be a reliable gait speed assessment ready for immediate community applications.

Language: en


Singapore; functional status; 4 m gait speed test; normal healthy population; normal reference values


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