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Journal Article


Frechede B, McIntosh A, Grzebieta RH, Bambach MR. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 2009; 37(7): 1403-1414.


School of Risk and Safety Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia,


(Copyright © 2009, Holtzbrinck Springer Nature Publishing Group)






The purpose of this paper is to present a protocol of inverted drop-tests using a 50th percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) and investigate the influence of angle and velocity at impact on neck injury risk assessment. The tests were based on existing cadaveric experimental protocols for inverted seated positions. In this study selected ATD impact orientations were also assessed in both the sagittal and coronal planes. Twenty-six tests were performed at impact velocities from 1.4 to 3.1 m s(-1). The drop tests confirmed previously described behavior of the ATD in axial loading of its head/neck/thorax complex. They also showed a significant influence of the initial impact angle on neck injury criteria currently used by researchers in rollover crashworthiness tests. At 1.4 m s(-1), the peak upper neck axial force of 4350 N was reduced by an average 1760 +/- 80 N for configurations with 30 degrees initial impact angle in any plane, compared to a reference inverted vertical configuration. The N (ij) was also significantly influenced. For a given impact velocity, an out-of-both-planes initial configuration resulted in the highest combined outputs. Based on these results, similar dynamic conditions (intrusion velocity, impact duration) may result in significantly different loadings of the Hybrid III neck.

Language: en


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