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Language Abbreviations

Many of the journal articles included in SafetyLit have English language abstracts but the body of the report is in another language. Until recently we have identified these articles by a three letter abbreviation based upon the ISO 639-2 standard. We have completed the the process of changing to the 2-character ISO 639-1 standard.

When SafetyLit records are downloaded to a bibliographic database, we follow the ISO 639-1 (two character) standard to allow the citation software to automatically format references according to language-based rules.

ISO 639-1 By Language

See listing ordered by abbreviation below.

  • (Afan) Oromo - om
  • Abkhazian - ab - аҧсуа бызшәа, аҧсшәа
  • Afar - aa - Afaraf
  • Afrikaans - af
  • Albanian - sq - gjuha shqipe
  • Amharic - am - አማርኛ
  • Arabic - ar - العربية
  • Armenian - hy - Հայերեն
  • Assamese - as - অসমীয়া
  • Aymara - ay - aymar aru
  • Azerbaijani - az - azərbaycan dili
  • Bashkir - ba - башҡорт теле
  • Basque - eu - euskara
  • Bengali - bn - বাংলা
  • Belarusian - be - беларуская мова - Byelorussian
  • Bhutani - dz - Dzongkha - རྫོང་ཁ
  • Bihari - bh - भोजपुरी
  • Bislama - bi
  • Bosnian - bs - bosanski jezik
  • Breton - br - brezhoneg
  • Bulgarian - bg - български език
  • Burmese - my - ဗမာစာ
  • Cambodian - km - ខ្មែរ, ខេមរភាសា, ភាសាខ្មែរ - Khmer
  • Catalan - ca - català, valencià - Valencian
  • Chinese - zh - 中文 (Zhōngwén), 汉语, 漢語
  • Corsican - co - corsu, lingua corsa
  • Croatian - hr - hrvatski jezik
  • Czech - cs - čeština, český jazyk
  • Danish - da - dansk
  • Dutch - nl - Nederlands, Vlaams
  • English - en
  • Esperanto - eo - (constructed)
  • Estonian - et - eesti, eesti keel
  • Faeroese - fo - føroyskt
  • Fiji - fj - vosa Vakaviti
  • Finnish - fi - suomi, suomen kieli
  • French - fr - français, langue française
  • Frisian - fy
  • Galician - gl - galego
  • Georgian - ka - ქართული
  • German - de - Deutsch
  • Greek - el - ελληνικά
  • Greenlandic - kl - kalaallisut, kalaallit oqaasii
  • Guarani - gn - Avañe'ẽ
  • Gujarati - gu - ગુજરાતી
  • Hausa - ha - هَوُسَ
  • Hebrew (formerly iw) - he - עברית
  • Hindi - hi - हिन्दी, हिंदी
  • Hungarian - hu - magyar
  • Icelandic - is - Íslenska
  • Indonesian (formerly in) - id - Bahasa Indonesia
  • Interlingua - ia - (constructed)
  • Interlingue - ie - (constructed)
  • Inupiak - ik - Iñupiaq, Iñupiatun
  • Inuktitut - iu - ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ
  • Irish - ga - Gaeilge
  • Italian - it - italiano
  • Japanese - ja - 日本語 (にほんご)
  • Javanese - jw - basa Jawa
  • Kannada - kn - ಕನ್ನಡ
  • Kashmiri - ks - कश्मीरी, كشميري‎
  • Kazakh - kk - қазақ тілі
  • Khmer - km - ខ្មែរ, ខេមរភាសា, ភាសាខ្មែរ
  • Kinyarwanda - rw - Ikinyarwanda
  • Kirghiz - ky - Кыргызча, Кыргыз тили
  • Kirundi - rn - Ikirundi
  • Korean - ko - 한국어, 조선어
  • Kurdish - ku - Kurdî, كوردی‎
  • Laothian - lo - ພາສາລາວ
  • Latin - la - latine, lingua latina
  • Latvian, Lettish - lv - latviešu valoda
  • Lingala - ln - Lingála
  • Lithuanian - lt - lietuvių kalba
  • Macedonian - mk - македонски јазик
  • Malagasy - mg - fiteny malagasy
  • Malay - ms - bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو‎
  • Malayalam - ml - മലയാളം
  • Maltese - mt - Malti
  • Maori - mi - e reo Māori
  • Marathi - mr - मराठी
  • Moldavian - mo
  • Mongolian - mn - монгол
  • Nauru - na - Ekakairũ Naoero
  • Nepali - ne - नेपाली
  • Norwegian - no - Norsk
  • Occitan - oc - occitan, lenga d'òc
  • Oriya - or - ଓଡ଼ିଆ
  • Pashto, Pushto - ps - پښتو
  • Persian - fa - Farsi - فارسی
  • Polish - pl - język polski, polszczyzna
  • Portuguese - pt - português
  • Punjabi - pa - ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی‎
  • Quechua - qu - Runa Simi, Kichwa
  • Rhaeto-Romance - rm - rumantsch grischun
  • Romanian - ro - limba română
  • Russian - ru - русский язык
  • Samoan - sm - gagana fa'a Samoa
  • Sangro - sg - yângâ tî sängö
  • Sanskrit - sa - संस्कृतम्
  • Scots Gaelic - gd
  • Serbian - sr - српски језик
  • Serbo-Croatian - sh
  • Sesotho - st
  • Setswana - tn
  • Shona - sn - chiShona
  • Sindhi - sd
  • Singhalese - si - සිංහල
  • Siswati - ss SiSwati
  • Slovak - sk - slovenčina, slovenský jazyk
  • Slovenian - sl - slovenski jezik, slovenščina
  • Somali - so - Soomaaliga, af Soomaali
  • Spanish - es - español, castellano
  • Sudanese - su - Basa Sunda
  • Swahili - sw - Kiswahili
  • Swedish - sv - Svenska
  • Tagalog - tl
  • Tajik - tg - тоҷикӣ, toğikī, تاجیکی‎
  • Tamil - ta - தமிழ்
  • Tatar - tt - татар теле, tatar tele
  • Tegulu - te - తెలుగు
  • Thai - th - ไทย - ትግርኛ
  • Tibetan - bo - བོད་ཡིག
  • Tigrinya - ti - ትግርኛ
  • Tonga - to - faka Tonga
  • Tsonga - ts - Xitsonga
  • Turkish - tr - Türkçe
  • Turkmen - tk - Türkmen, Түркмен
  • Twi - tw
  • Uighur - ug - Uyƣurqə, ئۇيغۇرچە‎
  • Ukrainian - uk - українська мова
  • Urdu - ur - اردو
  • Uzbek - uz - O‘zbek, Ўзбек, أۇزبېك
  • Vietnamese - vi - Tiếng Việt
  • Volapuk - vo - Volapük
  • Welch - cy - Cymraeg
  • Wolof - wo - Wollof
  • Xhosa - xh - isiXhosa
  • Yiddish (formerly ji) - yi - ייִדיש
  • Yoruba - yo - Yorùbá
  • Zhuang - za - Saɯ cueŋƅ, Saw cuengh
  • Zulu - zu - isiZulu

ISO 639-1 By Abbreviation

See listing above ordered by the English name for the language.

  • aa - Afar
  • ab - Abkhazian
  • af - Afrikaans
  • am - Amharic
  • ar - Arabic
  • as - Assamese
  • ay - Aymara
  • az - Azerbaijani
  • ba - Bashkir
  • be - Byelorussian
  • bg - Bulgarian
  • bh - Bihari
  • bi - Bislama
  • bn - Bengali
  • bo - Tibetan
  • br - Breton
  • ca - Catalan
  • co - Corsican
  • cs - Czech
  • cy - Welch
  • da - Danish
  • de - German
  • dz - Bhutani
  • el - Greek
  • en - English
  • eo - Esperanto
  • es - Spanish
  • et - Estonian
  • eu - Basque
  • fa - Persian
  • fi - Finnish
  • fj - Fiji
  • fo - Faeroese
  • fr - French
  • fy - Frisian
  • ga - Irish
  • gd - Scots Gaelic
  • gl - Galician
  • gn - Guarani
  • gu - Gujarati
  • ha - Hausa
  • hi - Hindi
  • he - Hebrew
  • hr - Croatian
  • hu - Hungarian
  • hy - Armenian
  • ia - Interlingua
  • id - Indonesian
  • ie - Interlingue
  • ik - Inupiak
  • in - former Indonesian
  • is - Icelandic
  • it - Italian
  • iu - Inuktitut (Eskimo)
  • iw - former Hebrew
  • ja - Japanese
  • ji - former Yiddish
  • jw - Javanese
  • ka - Georgian
  • kk - Kazakh
  • kl - Greenlandic
  • km - Cambodian
  • kn - Kannada
  • ko - Korean
  • ks - Kashmiri
  • ku - Kurdish
  • ky - Kirghiz
  • la - Latin
  • ln - Lingala
  • lo - Laothian
  • lt - Lithuanian
  • lv - Latvian, Lettish
  • mg - Malagasy
  • mi - Maori
  • mk - Macedonian
  • ml - Malayalam
  • mn - Mongolian
  • mo - Moldavian
  • mr - Marathi
  • ms - Malay
  • mt - Maltese
  • my - Burmese
  • na - Nauru
  • ne - Nepali
  • nl - Dutch
  • no - Norwegian
  • oc - Occitan
  • om - (Afan) Oromo
  • or - Oriya
  • pa - Punjabi
  • pl - Polish
  • ps - Pashto, Pushto
  • pt - Portuguese
  • qu - Quechua
  • rm - Rhaeto-Romance
  • rn - Kirundi
  • ro - Romanian
  • ru - Russian
  • rw - Kinyarwanda
  • sa - Sanskrit
  • sd - Sindhi
  • sg - Sangro
  • sh - Serbo-Croatian
  • si - Singhalese
  • sk - Slovak
  • sl - Slovenian
  • sm - Samoan
  • sn - Shona
  • so - Somali
  • sq - Albanian
  • sr - Serbian
  • ss - Siswati
  • st - Sesotho
  • su - Sudanese
  • sv - Swedish
  • sw - Swahili
  • ta - Tamil
  • te - Tegulu
  • tg - Tajik
  • th - Thai
  • ti - Tigrinya
  • tk - Turkmen
  • tl - Tagalog
  • tn - Setswana
  • to - Tonga
  • tr - Turkish
  • ts - Tsonga
  • tt - Tatar
  • tw - Twi
  • ug - Uigur
  • uk - Ukrainian
  • ur - Urdu
  • uz - Uzbek
  • vi - Vietnamese
  • vo - Volapuk
  • wo - Wolof
  • xh - Xhosa
  • yi - Yiddish
  • yo - Yoruba
  • za - Zhuang
  • zh - Chinese
  • zu - Zulu

ISO 639-2 Language Codes

  • Afr - Afrikaans
  • Alb - Albanian
  • Ara - Arabic
  • Arm - Armenian
  • Aze - Azerbaijani
  • Bos - Bosnian
  • Bul - Bulgarian
  • Cat - Catalan
  • Chi - Chinese
  • Cze - Czech
  • Dan - Danish
  • Dut - Dutch - Flemish
  • Eng - English
  • Fin - Finnish
  • Fre - French
  • Geo - Georgian
  • Ger - German
  • Gre - Greek
  • Heb - Hebrew
  • Hin - Hindi
  • Hun - Hungarian
  • Ice - Icelandic
  • Ind - Indonesian
  • Ita - Italian
  • Jpn - Japanese
  • Kor - Korean
  • Lav - Latvian
  • Lit - Lithuanian
  • Mac - Macedonian
  • Nor - Norwegian
  • Pan - Panjabi - Punjabi
  • Per - Persian - Farsi
  • Pol - Polish
  • Por - Portuguese
  • Rum - Romanian
  • Rus - Russian
  • Scc - Serbian
  • Scr - Croatian
  • Slo - Slovak
  • Spa - Spanish
  • Swe - Swedish
  • Tgl - Tagalog
  • Tha - Thai
  • Tur - Turkish
  • Ukr - Ukrainian
  • Vie - Vietnamese
  • Wel - Welsh

rev. 17 Mar 2014